c2h5oh + hno3

Nitric acid is a very powerful strong acid and it can react with ethanol without a catalyst. Let us predict the mechanism between the reaction of HNO3 and C2H5OH.

Bạn đang xem: c2h5oh + hno3

HNO3 or nitric acid is an inorganic mineral acid having a molar mass of 63.012 g/mol. Where C2H5OH or ethanol is an organic compound having -OH functionality. The reaction between them was produced to lớn burn the carbon and formed the corresponding carbon-containing molecules. The basicity of the ethanol depends on the presence of an electronegative O atom.

Although there will be some parameters and limitations present in this reaction. Now we can discuss more the mechanism of the reaction lượt thích enthalpy, redox reaction, intermolecular force, conjugate pairs, etc with an explanation in the following part of the article.

1. What is the product of HNO3 and C2H5OH?

CO2 and  NO2 along with some H2O molecules are formed as major products formed when HNO3 and C2H5OH are reacted together. 

HNO3 + C2H5OH = CO2 + NO2 + H2O

2. What type of reaction is HNO3 + C2H5OH?

HNO3 + C2H5OH reaction is an example of an acid-base reaction, a double displacement reaction, and a redox and precipitation reaction. It is also a hydrolysis reaction  as in the course of the reaction, water is formed.

3. How to lớn balance HNO3 + C2H5OH?

HNO3 + C2H5OH = CO2 + NO2 + H2O, we have to lớn balance the equation in the following way-

  • First, we label all the reactants and products by A, B, C, D, and E as there are five different molecules obtained for this reaction and the reaction looks lượt thích this,
  • A HNO3 + B C2H5OH = C NO2 + D CO2 + E H2
  • Equating the coefficients for the same type of elements by rearranging them.
  • After the rearrangement of coefficients of the same elements by their stoichiometric proportion, we get, 
  • H = A = 6B = 2E, N = A = C, O = 3A = B = 2C = 2 chiều = E, C = 2B = D.
  • Using the Gaussian elimination and equating all the equations we get, A = 12, B = 1, C = 12, D = 2, and E = 9
  • The overall balanced equation will be, 
  • 12 HNO3 + C2H5OH = 2 CO2 +12 NO2 + 9 H2O

4. HNO3 + C2H5OH titration

To estimate the quantity of nitrogen dioxide or strength of acid we can perform a titration between C2H5OH and HNO3.

Apparatus used

We need a burette, conical flask, burette holder, volumetric flask, and beakers for this titration.

Titre and titrant

HNOversus C2H5OH, HNO3 acts as a titrant taken in the burette and the molecule to lớn be analyzed is C2H5OH taken in a conical flask.


The whole titration is done in an acidic medium or acidic pH sánh the best suitable indicator will be phenolphthalein which gives perfect results for this titration at given pH.


The burette is filled with standardized HNO3. C2H5OH is taken in a conical flask along with respective indicators. HNO3 is added dropwise to lớn the conical flask and the flask is shaken constantly. After a certain time, when the endpoint arrives, the indicator changes its color and the reaction is done.

5. HNO3 + C2H5OH net ionic equation

The net ionic equation between HNO3 + C2H5OH is as follows,

H+(aq.) + NO3(aq.) + C2H5OH (aq.) = CO2(g) + NO2(g) + H+(aq.) + OH(aq.)

  • HNO3 will be ionized as proton and nitrate as it is strong acid and electrolyte.
  • After that C2H5OH dissociates very slowly almost zero dissociation as the dissociation constant for organic molecules is very low.
  • In the product part, NO2 and CO2 exist in the gaseous state sánh they cannot be dissociated. 
  • H2O ionized into proton and hydroxide ion.

6. HNO3 + C2H5OH conjugate pairs

Xem thêm: get away with là gì

HNO3 + C2H5OH has the following conjugate pairs,

  • Conjugate pair of HNO3 = NO3
  • Conjugate pair of OH = H2O
  • Conjugate pair of C2H5O = C2H5OH

7. HNO3 + C2H5OH intermolecular forces

HNO3 + C2H5OH has the following intermmolecular forces,

  • The intermolecular force present in HNO3 is the strong electrostatic force and coulumbic force between protons and nitrate ions. 
  • In C2H5OH there are H-bonding and covalent forces present.
  •  In NO2 nài der waal’s force is present and for water H-bonding is present.Intermolecular Forces

8. HNO3 + C2H5OH reaction enthalpy

HNO3 + C2H5OH reaction enthalpy is +2841.32 KJ/mol which can be obtained by the formula: enthalpy of products – enthalpy of reactants. Here the change in enthalpy is positive.

Enthalpy of Reactants and Products

9. Is HNO3 + C2H5OH a buffer solution?

In the reaction between HNO3 + C2H5OH, there is no such buffer formed but the mixture of CO2 and H2O formed carbonic acid which can control the pH even by adding a base.

10. Is HNO3 + C2H5OH a complete reaction?

The reaction between HNO3 + C2H5OH is complete because it gives two major gaseous products along with water as a by-product.

11. Is HNO3 + C2H5OH an exothermic or endothermic reaction?

The reaction of HNO3 + C2H5OH is endothermic in terms of thermodynamics first law. This reaction absorbed more heat as energy and temperature to lớn the surroundings, where δH is always positive.

12. Is HNO3 + C2H5OH a redox reaction?

HNO3 + C2H5OH reaction is a redox reaction because in this reaction carbon gets oxidized and nitrogen gets reduced. Where HNO3 acts as an oxidizing agent and C2H5OH acts as a reducing agent.

Redox Schematic of the HNO3 and C2H5OH Reaction

13. Is HNO3 + C2H5OH a precipitation reaction?

The reaction between HNO3 + C2H5OH is a precipitation reaction because NO2 and CO2 get precipitated in the solution at certain pH. 

14. Is HNO3 + C2H5OH reversible or irreversible reaction?

The reaction between HNO3 + C2H5OH is irreversible because it produced NO2 and CO2 gas. Due to lớn the production of the gaseous molecule, the entropy of the reaction increases. Therefore, the equilibrium shifts towards the right-hand side only or forward directions.

HNO3 + C2H5OH —-🡪 NO2(g) ↑+ CO2(g) ↑+ H2O

15. Is HNO3 + C2H5OH displacement reaction?

The reaction between HNO3 + C2H5OH is an example of a double displacement reaction. Because in the reaction, H+ is displaced by ethanol and C is also displaced by HNO3.

Double Displacement Reaction


The reaction between HNO3 and C2H5OH is an endothermic process sánh it does not required any type of catalyst for proceed the reaction. The transition state of the energy profile diagram for the reaction is very low. It is an industrially important reaction for the production of NO2 gas.

Xem thêm: something là gì