Fe_{2}O_{3} (Ferric oxide), found as hematite ore, is an insoluble solid, and H_{2}SO_{4} (Sulfuric acid) is a strong inorganic acid. Let us study how their reaction occurs.

**The reaction of H _{2}SO_{4} with Fe_{2}O_{3} is an acid-base reaction. H_{2}SO_{4} is highly corrosive and a powerful dehydrating agent that is highly useful in organic synthesis. Fe_{2}O_{3} is red-brown in appearance and a stable oxide of iron**.

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Here, we will discuss some reaction parameters lượt thích enthalpy, molecular forces, and the feasibility of the H_{2}SO_{4}+Fe_{2}O_{3} reaction.

## What is the product of H_{2}SO_{4} and Fe_{2}O_{3}

**Fe _{2}(SO_{4})_{3} (Ferric sulfate) and H_{2}O (water molecules) are produced in the reaction of H_{2}SO_{4 }+ Fe_{2}O_{3}.**

**H _{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} → Fe_{2}(SO_{4})_{3} + H_{2}O**

## What type of reaction is H_{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3}

** H _{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3 }is a neutralization reaction. Here, Fe_{2}O_{3 }is a base that neutralizes sulfuric acid and forms salt**.

## How to tát balance H_{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3}

**The H _{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} reaction is balanced using the following steps.**

**H _{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} → Fe_{2}(SO_{4})_{3} + H_{2}O**

Elements involved | Reactants side | Product side |
---|---|---|

Fe | 2 | 2 |

H | 2 | 2 |

S | 1 | 3 |

O | 7 | 13 |

**Number of elements**

**The reactants and the products involved in the reaction are identified and counted.****With the use of coefficients, the charges and elements are balanced. Before H**_{2}SO_{4}and H_{2}O, a coefficient of 3 is added.**Thus we get the balanced equation as****3H**_{2}SO_{4}+ Fe_{2}O_{3}→ Fe_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}+ 3H_{2}O

## H_{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} titration

**Gravimetric analysis is used for the titration of Fe _{2}O_{3}. It is a type of analytical method in which the estimation of the analyte is done by the mass of the solid which is carried out using the following process.**

**Apparatus**

**Crucible, burette, glass rod, funnel, beaker, filter paper, burner**

**Procedure**

**Burette is filled with Ferrous ammonium sulfate solution. From this, 10 ml of the sulfate solution is taken into the volumetric flask and diluted with distilled water up to tát the mark.****The resultant solution is transferred to tát a dry beaker to tát get the homogenous solution.****25 ml of the diluted solution is taken in another beaker and 50 ml of distilled water is added to tát it with the help of a cylinder.****After the addition of 5 ml of H**_{2}SO_{4}to tát the solution, heat it on the burner using a wire gauge.**3 ml of nitric acid (HNO**_{3}) is added dropwise to tát the heating solution with constant stirring. HNO_{3 }will oxidize Iron and the color of the solution changes to tát yellow.**0.2 grams of NH**_{4}Cl (ammonium chloride) is further added to tát the heated solution along with 10 ml of 1:1 ammonia solution until the reddish brown precipitate of Fe(OH)_{3}appears.**The solution is heated to tát get the precipitate to tát settle down and boil off the excess of ammonia.****Filter the solution using Whatman paper and transfer the precipitate carefully to tát the filter paper.****Precipitate is washed with 2% ammonium nitrate solution and hot water and the precipitate is dried and heated strongly in the crucible.****Weight of the dried precipitate (Fe**_{2}O_{3}) is taken and used in calculations for the estimation of the Iron.

## H_{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} net ionic equation

**The net ion equation of the H _{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} reaction is**

**Fe _{2}O_{3}(s) + 2H^{+}(aq) → 2Fe^{3+}(aq)+ 2SO_{4}^{2-}(aq) + 3H_{2}O(l)**

**The ionic equation is deduced using the following steps**

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**The balanced equation for Fe**_{2}O_{3}+ H_{2}SO_{4 }is written in the first step,**Fe**_{2}O_{3}+ H_{2}SO_{4}→ Fe_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}+ 3H_{2}O**The phases (solid, gas, liquid, or aqueous) is indicated for all the substituents.****Fe**_{2}O_{3}(s) + H_{2}SO_{4}(aq) → Fe_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}(aq) + 3H_{2}O(l)**Splitting of the strong-electrolytes is done in the next step. Since Fe**_{2}O_{3}is solid and H_{2}O is a weak-electrolyte, they will not split. The equation now becomes,**Fe**_{2}O_{3}(s) + 2H^{+}(aq)+SO_{4}^{2-}(aq) → 2Fe^{3+}(aq)+ 3SO_{4}^{2-}(aq) + 3H_{2}O(l)**The spectator-ions are canceled out and the net equation is****Fe**_{2}O_{3}(s) + 2H^{+}(aq) → 2Fe^{3+}(aq)+ 2SO_{4}^{2-}(aq) + 3H_{2}O(l)

## H_{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} conjugate pairs

**H _{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3 }will not constitute a conjugate acid-base pair**

**as they bởi not conjugate with each other.**

**The conjugate base of H**_{2}SO_{4 }is SO_{4}^{2-}.

**Fe**._{2}O_{3 }is an oxide sánh no conjugate pair concept is applied here

## H_{2}SO_{4} and Fe_{2}O_{3} intermolecular forces

**Hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole interactions and dispersion forces are observed in H**_{2}SO_{4 }molecules where Hydrogen bonding is most prominent.**Electrostatic force of attraction is found in Fe**_{2}O_{3 }molecules as it is ionic in nature attributed to tát the small size of Fe^{3+}ion and electronegativity difference between Fe and O.

## H_{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} reaction enthalpy

**H _{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} reaction enthalpy is -59.68 KJ/mol. The calculation of the enthalpy is done using the values below**,

Reactants and products | Enthalpy in KJ/mol |
---|---|

Fe_{2}O_{3} | 833.31 |

H_{2}SO_{4} | -909.27 |

Fe_{2}(SO_{4})_{3} | 2763.4 |

H_{2}O | -285.8 |

**Enthalpy data**

**∆H _{f}^{°}(reaction) = ∆H_{f}^{°}(products) – ∆H_{f}^{°}(reactants)**

** = -3620.8 – (-3561.12)**

** = -59.68 KJ/mol**

## Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} a buffer solution

**Fe _{2}O_{3} + H_{2}SO_{4 }will not function as a buffer**

**as here sulfuric acid is used which is a strong acid.**

## Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} a complete reaction

** Fe _{2}O_{3 }+ H_{2}SO_{4} is a complete reaction as a complete neutralization is observed by giving off the salt Fe_{2}(SO_{4})_{3} and water as the products. **

## Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} an exothermic or endothermic reaction

**Fe _{2}O_{3 }+ H_{2}SO_{4} is an **

**exothermic**

**reaction**

**as it gives off heat during the reaction. Also, the negative value of enthalpy (-59.68 KJ/mol) indicates the same.**

## Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} a redox reaction

**Fe _{2}O_{3 }+ H_{2}SO_{4} is not a redox reaction because the oxidation of the substituents remains same throughout the reaction.**

## Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} a precipitation reaction

**H _{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3 }is not a precipitation reaction as the salt formed [Fe_{2}(SO_{4})_{3}] is soluble in water.**

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## Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} reversible or irreversible reaction

**H _{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3 }reaction is an irreversible reaction as the Iron sulfate formed will not react with water to tát give the reactants due to tát the lesser reactivity of hydrogen kêu ca Fe**.

## Is H_{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} displacement reaction

** H _{2}SO_{4} + Fe_{2}O_{3} is a double displacement reaction.**

#### Conclusion

The reaction between H_{2}SO_{4} and Fe_{2}O_{3} is exothermic and occurs in an irreversible manner. Fe_{2}O_{3} is a major source for the production of iron and is of high importance when it comes to tát dye and cosmetic industry. ** **

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