stationary là gì

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"Stationers" redirects here. For the livery company, see Stationers' Company.

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Different items of stationery used at an office
Inside a stationery cửa hàng in Hanoi

Stationery refers lớn commercially manufactured writing materials, including cut paper, envelopes, writing implements, continuous size paper, and other office supplies.[1] Stationery includes materials lớn be written on by hand (e.g., letter paper) or by equipment such as computer printers.

History of stationery[edit]

Originally, the term 'stationery' referred lớn all products sold by a stationer, whose name indicated that his book cửa hàng was on a fixed spot. This was usually somewhere near a university, and permanent, while medieval trading was mainly carried on by itinerant peddlers (including chapmen, who sold books) and others (such as farmers and craftsmen) at markets and fairs. It was a unique term used between the 13th and 15th centuries in the manuscript culture. Stationers' shops were places where books were bound, copied, and published. These shops often loaned books lớn nearby university students for a fee. The books were loaned out in sections, allowing students lớn study or copy them, and the only way lớn get the next part of the book was lớn return the previous section.[2] In some cases, stationers' shops became the preferred choice for scholars lớn find books, instead of university libraries due lớn stationers' shops' wider collection of books.[3] The Stationers' Company formerly held a monopoly over the publishing industry in England and was responsible for copyright regulations.

Uses of stationery[edit]


Printing is the process of applying a colouring agent lớn a surface lớn create a toàn thân of text or illustrations. This is often achieved through printing technology, but can be done by hand using more traditional methods. The earliest size of printing is wood blocking.


Example of inked letterpress process

Letterpress is a process of printing several identical copies that presses words and designs onto the page. The print may be inked or blind, but is typically done in a single color. Motifs or designs may be added as many letterpress machines use movable plates that must be hand-set. Letterpress printing remained the primary method of printing until the 19th century.

Single documents[edit]

When a single document needs lớn be produced, it may be handwritten or printed, typically by a computer printer. Several copies of one original paper can be produced by some printers using multipart stationery. Typing with a typewriter is largely obsolete, having been superseded for most purposes by preparing a document with a word processor and then printing it.


Example of thermographic printing. The uneven quality of the text is a result of the process and easily differentiates thermographic printing from embossing

Thermographic printing is a process that involves several stages but can be implemented in a low-cost manufacturing process. The process involves printing the desired designs or text with an ink that remains wet, rather than vãn drying on liên hệ with the paper. The paper is then dusted with a powdered polymer that adheres lớn the ink. The paper is vacuumed or agitated, mechanically or by hand, lớn remove excess powder, and then heated lớn near combustion. The wet ink and polymer bond and dry, resulting in a raised print surface similar lớn the result of an engraving process.

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Example of an embossed design

Embossing is a printing technique used lớn create raised surfaces in the converted paper stock. The process relies upon mated dies that press the paper into a shape that can be observed on both the front and back surfaces. Two things are required during the process of embossing: a die and a stock. The result is a three-dimensional (3D) effect that emphasizes a particular area of the design.


Example of a brass engraving plate, showing heavy wear. The plate is hand or machine engraved, inked, and forced into paper at extremely high pressures.

Engraving is a process that requires a design lớn be cut into a plate made of relatively hard material. The metal plate is first polished sánh that the design cut can be easily visible lớn the person. This technology has a long history and requires a significant amount of skill, experience, and expertise. The finished plate is usually covered in ink, and then the ink is removed from all of the un-etched portions of the plate. The plate is then pressed into paper under substantial pressure. The result is a design that is slightly raised on the surface of the paper and covered in ink. Due lớn the cost of the process and expertise required, many consumers opt for thermographic printing, a process that results in a similarly raised print surface, but through different means at less cost.


A stationery cửa hàng on November 4, 1973 in Iran
  • Business Stationery: Business thẻ, letterhead, invoices, receipts
  • Desktop instruments: hole punch, stapler and staples, tapes and tape dispensers,
  • Drawing instruments: brushes, pens, colour pencils, crayons, water colour,
  • Erasers
  • Ink and toner:
    • Dot matrix printer's ink ribbon
    • Inkjet cartridge
    • Laser printer toner
    • Photocopier toner
  • Filing and storage:
    • Expandable file
    • File folder
    • Hanging tệp tin folder
    • Index cards and files
    • Two-pocket portfolios
  • Mailing and shipping supplies:
    • Envelope
  • Paper and pad:
    • Notebooks, wirebound notebook, writing pads, college ruled paper, wide-ruled paper,
    • Office paper: dot matrix paper, inkjet printer paper, laser printer paper, photocopy paper.
    • Loose leaves, ring binders and hole punches.
  • Writing instruments: ballpoint pen, fountain pen, pencil, porous point pen, rollerball pen, highlighter pen, multi pen

School supplies[edit]

Many shops that sell stationery also sell other school supplies for students in primary and secondary education, including pocket calculators, display boards, compasses and protractors, lunchboxes, and the lượt thích.[4][5]

Major brands, manufacturers and retailers of stationery[edit]

This section contains an incomplete list of famous brands, manufacturers and retailers of stationery worldwide.

In US and Canada, Office Depot and Staples are two major retailers of stationery.

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Notable stationery brands in Europe include LAMY, MOLESKINE and Staedtler.

In nhật bản, major manufacturers of stationery include Kokuyo, Maruman, Lihit Lab, King Jim, MUJI and Tombow. MUJI also has about 800 retail stores worldwide.

In mainland Trung Quốc, 晨光文具 (Chén guāng wén jù) is a major manufacturer and retailer of stationery, and MUJI is a popular retailer in larger cities.

See also[edit]

  • Office supplies
  • List of stationery topics
  • New Zealand standard for school stationery


  1. ^ Peter Beal, ed., "Stationery", A Dictionary of English Manuscript Terminology, 1450–2000 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008 [2011 online]).
  2. ^ Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. Skyhorse Publishing. pp. 65–66. ISBN 9781602397064.
  3. ^ Murray, Stuart (2009). The Library: An Illustrated History. Skyhorse Publishing. p. 56. ISBN 9781628733228. Retrieved 19 February 2021.
  4. ^ Streamlined Sales Tax Project "Definitions for School Related Supplies: SSTP Recommendations for Amendment lớn Agreement; July 29, 2004" Archived September 24, năm ngoái, at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Virginia Department of Taxation "School Supplies and Clothing FAQs" Archived 2015-02-07 at the Wayback Machine

External links[edit]